Infantile esotropia risk factors include low birth weight and emergency cesarean section deliveries, according to a study published in Optometry and Vision Science.
Researchers included 99 patients with infantile esotropia (esotropia magnitude, 61.09 diopters [D]; gestational age, 38.3 weeks; birth weight, 3112 g) and 117 control individuals (gestational age, 38.4 weeks; birth weight, 3228 g) in a study conducted between March 2018 and March 2021. Participants underwent cover-uncover tests and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Their caretakers supplied demographic information using a questionnaire.
Children with a low birth weight (<2500 g; Odds Ratio [OR], 4.725) and late preterm birth (34–36 weeks; OR, 4.192) had a higher risk of esotropia compared with children who had normal birth weight (P =.003) and were born full-term (P =.008). Emergency cesarean section delivery was associated with an increased risk of infantile esotropia (OR, 2.535, P =.006), but elective cesarean section did not significantly increase this risk (OR, 1.572; P =.18).
“These results will be helpful for obstetricians and pediatricians to improve awareness of the association of these risk factors with infantile esotropia and to recommend early eye examinations for high-risk infants,” according to the researchers. “Vision care providers must diagnose infantile esotropia as early as possible and make informed decisions regarding the management of children with this condition.”
Study limitations include a retroscopic nature, single center design, small sample size, and the use of survey items on the questionnaire that could not be verified.
Huang J, Zheng Q, Nie K, Wei H, Liu L. Association between gestational age, birth weight, parental age at childbirth, mode of delivery, and infantile esotropia. Optom Vis Sci. 2022;99(11):794-799. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001952