HealthDay News — A high proportion of infants in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are not meeting current vitamin D recommendations, according to a study published online March 11 in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Sina Gallo, R.D., Ph.D., from University of Georgia in Athens, and colleagues conducted a secondary analysis to examine associations between infant vitamin D intake and meeting recommendations among a national sample participating in the WIC Infant Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (2013 to 2015).
The researchers found that 16 to 36 percent of infants met vitamin D recommendations during the study period, with 6 to 12 percent of all participants reporting supplementation across all time points. Very few breastfed infants were supplemented, although most who were (78 to 98 percent) met the recommendation. At all time points except month 1, breastfed infants were less likely to meet the recommendation than those who were formula fed. Mother/caregiver nativity and parity predicted receiving supplementation, while child sex and mother/caregiver race/ethnicity predicted meeting the recommendation. Infant age, feeding type, and/or their interaction were significant predictors of both receiving supplementation and meeting the recommendation.
“The WIC program is one resource for promoting strategies for increasing the number of American infants meeting [vitamin] D recommendations, but a coordinated approach involving other health care providers is likely needed,” the authors write.